What to Know About HIV Booster Drugs (Pharmacokinetic Enhancers)

HIV Booster Drugs

Welcome and in this article, you will learn all about HIV Booster Drugs. Let’s start.

HIV Booster Drugs In Detail

How Norvir (Ritonavir) and Tybost (Cobicistat) Work

Pharmacokinetic enhancers are drugs utilized in the treatment of HIV that increment the grouping of other antiretroviral meds in the circulation system. Prominently alluded to as “promoters,” the medications permit specialists to lessen the portion and recurrence of the going with the drug while bringing down the danger of results and medication obstruction.

There are two pharmacokinetic enhancers endorsed for use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA): 

  • Norvir (ritonavir) 
  • Tybost (cobicistat) 

HIV supporters’ medication ought not to be mistaken for nutrients or enhancements advertised as “invulnerable promoters,” the last of which neither forestall nor treat HIV.oncohiv.com


At the point when a class of antiretroviral drugs called protease inhibitors (PIs) was first found during the 1990s, one of the principal challenges was the quick speed at which the medications were used and cleared from the circulatory system. Therefore, PIs regularly must be taken a few times each day to keep a consistent helpful blood concentration.4 

The issue with this, obviously, is that it opens individuals to high portions of the medication. This, thus, builds the danger of PI-related results, including hepatotoxicity (liver harming), lipodystrophy (unusual muscle versus fat rearrangement), and urolithiasis (the development of kidney stones). 

Besides, it made the medications undeniably less “lenient,” implying that drug opposition could create in the event that you had anything short of amazing medication adherence 

The entirety of that changed in 1996 with the presentation of a medication called Norvir.

Norvir (Ritonavir)

Norvir (ritonavir) is named a protease inhibitor. While it was first endorsed for its antiviral properties, scientists before long found that, even at low dosages, Norvir could impede the very catalyst called CYP3A4 used to process PIs. PIs become more solid (longer-enduring) by hindering this activity and require lower doses to accomplish a similar impact. 

The disclosure quickly affected the manner in which PIs were endorsed. Today, Norvir is seldom utilized for its antiviral properties but instead to expand the viability of going with PI. 

The medication is additionally contained in the fixed-portion blend tablet Kaletra (lopinavir + ritonavir). Nonexclusive forms are likewise accessible under the synthetic name “ritonavir.”


Norvir is utilized to regard HIV as a feature of PI-based treatment. It may very well be utilized in grown-ups and kids more established than one month. There are no off-mark utilizations for the medication.

Prior to Taking 

In the event that recently analyzed or changed treatment because of a treatment disappointment, your primary care physician will arrange blood tests to figure out which drug you are generally touchy to.

This incorporates hereditary obstruction testing to decide whether you have any medication safe changes that may avoid certain medications and phenotypic testing wherein the infection is straightforwardly presented to all antiretrovirals to see which ones work best. If a PI is chosen dependent on these tests, it is constantly joined by a sponsor. 

Norvir is contraindicated for use in individuals who have had an earlier overly sensitive response to ritonavir.oncohiv.com


Norvir is accessible as a 100-milligram (mg) tablet, a 100-mg delicate gel case, and an 80-mg per milliliter (mg/mL) flavor syrup plan. The Norvir portion is constantly titrated (which means it began at a lower portion and steadily expanded to its original capacity). 

At the point when utilized in kids, the portion is determined dependent on the kid’s body surface territory (mg per m2).

GroupRecommended DoseAdministration
Adults600 mg twice daily with foodStart at a minimum of 300 mg twice daily and increase by 100 mg twice daily every 2 to 3 days, never exceeding 600 mg twice daily
Children350 to 400 mg per m2 twice daily with foodStart at a minimum of 250 mg twice daily and increase by 50 mg twice daily every 2 to 3 days, never exceeding 600 mg twice daily

Tybost (Cobicistat)

In 2014, an entire 18 years after Norvir was first presented, a subsequent sponsor drug called Tybost (cobicistat) was officially endorsed by the FDA. 

Tybost is a medication simple of ritonavir (implying that it is synthetically comparable) yet has been changed so that it has no antiviral properties. Accordingly, it is characterized explicitly as a CYP3A4 inhibitor. 

Although Tybost is identified with Norvir, stripping the medication of its antiviral impact applies no activity on HIV and can’t cause cobicistat-safe mutations. 

Another way that Tybost contrasts is that it can help sedates other than PIs, most quite the integrase inhibitor elvitegravir.7 With that being said, Tybost isn’t exchangeable with Norvir.

Cobicistat can likewise be found in the accompanying fixed-portion blend drugs: 

  • Evotaz (atazanavir + cobicistat) 
  • Genvoya (elvitegravir + cobicistat + emtricitabine + tenofovir alafenamide) 
  • Prezcobix (darunavir + cobicistat) 
  • Stribild (elvitegravir + cobicistat + emtricitabine + tenofovir disoproxil fumarate) 
  • Symtuza (atazanavir + cobicistat + emtricitabine + tenofovir alafenamide) 

Tybost is accessible as an oral tablet. There are no nonexclusive renditions of Tybost.


Tybost is utilized to treat HIV in grown-ups 18 and over as a feature of mixed antiretroviral treatment. There are no off-mark utilizations for the medication. 

Prior to Taking 

Similarly, as with Norvir, hereditary obstruction testing and periodically phenotypic testing are performed before any new treatment routine begins. 

Since Tybost can support Viread (tenofovir disoproxil fumarate), an antiretroviral delegated nucleoside switch transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), kidney work tests are regularly performed if the medications are utilized together. 

Viread is related to an expanded danger of kidney disability, and the consolidated use may cause kidney disappointment in those with a prior kidney infection.

Tybost ought not be utilized by any individual who has had an earlier easily affected response to cobicistat. 


Tybost is made as a 150-mg tablet. The suggested measurement differs by going with PI just as whether the individual is recently treated (treatment-gullible) or has been recently presented to antiretroviral (treatment-experienced).

Accompanying PIRecommended  DoseApproved Use
Reyataz (atazanavir) 300 mg once dailyTybost 150 mg once daily taken with foodTreatment-naive or treatment-experienced
Prezista (darunavir) 800 mg one dailyTybost 150 mg once daily taken with foodTreatment-naive only


Despite the fact that Norvir and Tybost share comparative instruments of activity, their results are far different. While most are passable and will be in general-purpose as your body adjusts to treatment, some can be serious and require the prompt end of treatment.


Relatively, Tybost has fewer results than Norvir, primarily on the grounds that it applies no immediate antiviral activity. 

Tybost is likewise undeniably more averse to cause results. While as numerous as 6% of Tybost clients will report results, the greater part of Norvir clients will report gastrointestinal results while one of every four will report a rash. 

Basic results, by request of recurrence, include:


  • The runs 
  • Queasiness 
  • Modified taste 
  • Exhaustion 
  • Spewing 
  • Rash 
  • Stomach torment 
  • Hacking 
  • Joint torment 
  • Tipsiness 
  • Flushing 
  • Irritation 
  • Resentful stomach 
  • Fringe neuropathy


  • Jaundice 
  • Rash 
  • Queasiness 
  • Looseness of the bowels 
  • Migraine

If you want a great solution for HIV generally, healthy food must be needed for your body’s immune system. It increases the white blood cells in your body.